# criterion performance measurements

## overview

want to understand this report?

lower bound estimate upper bound
OLS regression xxx xxx xxx
R² goodness-of-fit xxx xxx xxx
Mean execution time 7.87094275270662e-3 9.798467953493975e-3 1.0975913347672277e-2
Standard deviation 0.0 1.7881437517686253e-3 2.039395245854785e-3

Outlying measurements have moderate (0.47067678818394787%) effect on estimated standard deviation.

## understanding this report

In this report, each function benchmarked by criterion is assigned a section of its own. The charts in each section are active; if you hover your mouse over data points and annotations, you will see more details.

• The chart on the left is a kernel density estimate (also known as a KDE) of time measurements. This graphs the probability of any given time measurement occurring. A spike indicates that a measurement of a particular time occurred; its height indicates how often that measurement was repeated.
• The chart on the right is the raw data from which the kernel density estimate is built. The x axis indicates the number of loop iterations, while the y axis shows measured execution time for the given number of loop iterations. The line behind the values is the linear regression prediction of execution time for a given number of iterations. Ideally, all measurements will be on (or very near) this line.

Under the charts is a small table. The first two rows are the results of a linear regression run on the measurements displayed in the right-hand chart.

• OLS regression indicates the time estimated for a single loop iteration using an ordinary least-squares regression model. This number is more accurate than the mean estimate below it, as it more effectively eliminates measurement overhead and other constant factors.
• R² goodness-of-fit is a measure of how accurately the linear regression model fits the observed measurements. If the measurements are not too noisy, R² should lie between 0.99 and 1, indicating an excellent fit. If the number is below 0.99, something is confounding the accuracy of the linear model.
• Mean execution time and standard deviation are statistics calculated from execution time divided by number of iterations.

We use a statistical technique called the bootstrap to provide confidence intervals on our estimates. The bootstrap-derived upper and lower bounds on estimates let you see how accurate we believe those estimates to be. (Hover the mouse over the table headers to see the confidence levels.)

A noisy benchmarking environment can cause some or many measurements to fall far from the mean. These outlying measurements can have a significant inflationary effect on the estimate of the standard deviation. We calculate and display an estimate of the extent to which the standard deviation has been inflated by outliers.